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The Double-sided “Personality” of Semiconductor Alliance

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The Double-sided "Personality" of Semiconductor Alliance
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Alliance can not only be blatantly targeted, but also create the future of the semiconductor industry.

 

In recent years, semiconductor alliance is gradually gaining momentum, from Chip4 to SIAC, from UCIe alliance to Wi-Fi alliance, alliance members seek new scale, standard or positioning to deal with common competitors or push business to new areas in order to ensure the market advantages of all parties.

 

With the gradual increase in the number of semiconductor alliances, behind the various alliances, there are not only the promotion of the development of the semiconductor industry, but also some different mysteries.

Let China’s beleaguered Chip 4

 

In March this year, the US government put forward a new plan codenamed “Chip 4”– proposing the establishment of an alliance composed of the United States, South Korea, Japan, and Taiwan of China. It is widely believed in the industry that if the alliance is reached, the United States will strengthen cooperation with South Korea, Japan and Taiwan around Chinese mainland, and put more pressure on China’s semiconductor ecosystem. As a result, the alliance is also part of US efforts to curb the growth of China’s chip industry, and Chip 4 is also interpreted as another move to crack down on China’s semiconductor industry.

 

In the view of the United States, if we can unite South Korea, Japan, and Taiwan, we will be able to take the initiative in semiconductor materials, components, chip manufacturing, equipment technology, and other aspects. According to the analysis of people in the industry, if the “Chip Quadripartite Alliance” goes smoothly, China’s Taiwan MediaTek, TSMC, and Sunmoon Light, three leading manufacturers involved in design, manufacturing and closed testing, will certainly be invited; South Korea will be represented by Samsung and SK Hynix; Japan will be dominated by Toshiba, Renesa, Tokyo Weili Kochuang and other enterprises. In the United States, there are heavyweight manufacturers such as Applied Materials, Micron, Intel, Broadcom and Qualcomm, which will form “the strongest alliance in the history of semiconductors.”

 

In the field of semiconductor equipment and materials, American Applied Materials and Tokyo Electronics of Japan are the world’s semiconductor equipment and materials giants. Applied Materials is the global semiconductor equipment giant. In 2020, Applied Materials continued to top the global semiconductor equipment list published by VLSI Research with revenue of 16.365 billion US dollars. Applied materials are the leaders in the field of ion etching and thin film deposition. Tokyo Electronics, Japan, the company’s products can cover almost all processes in the semiconductor manufacturing process. According to the ranking of global semiconductor manufacturing equipment manufacturers released by VLSI Research, Tokyo Electronics of Japan is the first semiconductor equipment company in Japan and the third in the world. Tokyo Electronics accounts for more than 70% of the market for equipment such as glue coating, development equipment and FPD manufacturing.

 

In the field of chip design, Samsung Electronics, Intel, Qualcomm and MediaTek occupy the first, second, fifth and seventh positions respectively in the ranking of the top ten semiconductor suppliers by revenue in 2021 published by Gartner, and the design capabilities of these semiconductor giants are also very excellent.

 

In the field of chip manufacturing, TSMC is the leader. As the most advanced contract factory in the world, TSMC also reiterated that it is expected to put 3nm process technology into mass production in the second half of 2022. The foundry also plans to put the enhanced N3E of N3 into mass production in the second half of 2023.

 

In the field of chip closed testing, Sun and Moon is the world’s largest provider of chip packaging and testing services.

 

The above enterprises have a pivotal position in each link of the semiconductor industry chain, the giant is United, and the industrial chain has a far-reaching impact.

 

After a lot of trouble, what on earth is the pursuit and interception of the United States?

 

From the perspective of China’s development, in recent years, China’s semiconductor industry has developed rapidly, driven by multiple factors, the market scale is growing year by year, the overall strength of the industry is increasing rapidly, the industrial structure is constantly optimized, and the degree of industrial regional aggregation is also increasing. Chinese mainland has also maintained strong growth in building its semiconductor manufacturing supply chain, announcing 28 new fab construction projects in 2021 with a total planned funding of US $26 billion.

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The United States feels threatened and is curbing the rapid growth of China’s semiconductor industry in all directions.

 

From the perspective of the United States, the US semiconductor industry maintains a leading market share in R & D-intensive areas such as EDA and core IP, chip design and manufacturing equipment, but manufacturing is the weakness of the United States. According to estimates by the American Semiconductor Industry Alliance (SIA), the share of modern semiconductor manufacturing capacity in the United States has fallen from 37% in 1990 to 12% in 2021, mainly because other governments have invested a lot in chip manufacturing incentives, while the US government has relocated manufacturing to Southeast Asia because of environmental pollution and labor returns. Therefore, the United States wants to implement relevant incentives to ensure the competitiveness of American semiconductor manufacturing.

Can Chip 4 fulfill America’s ambitions?

 

For allied enterprises, joining Chip 4 may make them lose the Chinese market. Global chip sales reached a record $555.9 billion in 2021, and Chinese mainland remains the world’s largest semiconductor market, with sales totaling $192.5 billion in 2021, according to SIA.

 

According to South Korean media, the South Korean government has not yet expressed its position on this, because South Korean semiconductor companies have key production facilities in Chinese mainland, Samsung Electronics and SK Hynix have factories in China, and their products account for an important share of the global market. Samsung Electronics’ only overseas memory chip factory is located in Xi’an. Its NAND plant has a monthly capacity of 265000 12-inch wafers, accounting for 42 per cent of Samsung’s total NAND flash memory production. SK Hynix produces DRAM chips in Wuxi, accounting for 47 per cent of the company’s total DRAM chip production.

 

Taiwan manufacturers also privately revealed that it is quite difficult to set up Chip 4, coupled with the fact that there are many competitive relationships among relevant semiconductor enterprises, and it is not easy to form a close alliance, and the main feasible model may be to curb the development of the mainland semiconductor industry from equipment and EDA tools.

 

For the United States, if Chip 4 is formally established, it will be able to curb the development of China’s semiconductor industry. Chinese semiconductors are highly dependent on foreign technology and equipment. Once Chip 4 plays a role, China will be besieged on all sides in the entire semiconductor industry, from chip design to chip manufacturing, from chip raw materials to chip equipment, giant blockade makes China lose more development opportunities.

 

Before Chip 4, SIAC also had a potential impact on China’s semiconductor industry

 

On May 11, 2021, the American Semiconductor Alliance (SIAC) officially announced its establishment. The alliance consists of semiconductor design and manufacturing enterprises, as well as downstream customers in the industry who use semiconductors heavily in consumer, military and other important areas of products. According to the description of the official website of SIAC, SIAC is a cross-industry alliance formed by enterprises that manufacture and use semiconductors. Its main mission is to advocate and call for the introduction and implementation of relevant policies on semiconductor manufacturing in the United States in the form of an industry alliance, so as to promote the continuous innovation and development of semiconductor technology in the United States, so as to support the upgrading of the future economy, critical infrastructure and defense equipment of the United States. The sudden establishment of the American Semiconductor Alliance will not only bring changes to the supply chain of the American semiconductor industry and the global semiconductor industry, but also have a potential impact on the development of China’s semiconductor industry.

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On the face of it, SIAC is a business alliance, but there are no Chinese companies in this alliance. Judging from the US policy toward China in the past, the establishment of this alliance is not good news. The United States not only blocks science and technology against China, but also intends to put China out of the semiconductor industry chain and speed up the technological iteration of the chip industry. to widen the gap with China.

 

On the back of “containment”, new technologies are born from industrial alliances

 

Not all alliances are so anti-globalized. Contrary to the encirclement and interception of Chip 4 and SIAC, the spontaneous alliances of the industry provide a hotbed for the growth of new technologies.

 

UCIe Alliance Reconfigurable Chip Interconnection Standard

 

The UCIe (Universal Chiplet Interconnect Express) alliance, which includes Intel, TSMC, Samsung, AMD, Arm, Qualcomm, Sunlight, Google Cloud, Meta, Microsoft and other industry giants, aims to establish a unified die-to-die (bare film to naked film) interconnection standard and create an open Chiplet ecosystem.

 

As an important way to continue Moore’s Law, due to the use of advanced packaging technology based on heterogeneous integration, Chiplet makes the production of complex chips no longer constrained by different processes, improves the overall performance by means of computing power expansion, and greatly shortens the production cycle. But like all technologies, Chiplet also faces many challenges. Packaging small chips with different specifications and characteristics together, heat dissipation, stress and signal transmission are all major tests. The biggest problem is that the standards are not unified, and it is difficult to match and combine the Chiplet developed by different manufacturers, thus limiting the development of the whole format.

 

Unified connectivity standards are therefore critical. UCIe breaks the boundaries between different processes and fabs, and the best way to achieve standardized hardware across multiple vendors is to set a single open specification that everyone can use.

In early April, domestic core original shares announced to formally join the UCIe industry alliance. As one of the first enterprises for Chinese mainland to join the organization, Xinyuan, together with other members of UCIe Industry Alliance, will work together on the research and application of UCIe1.0 version specifications and new generation UCIe technical standards, so as to further lay a solid foundation for the development of Chiplet technology and products.

 

WiFi Alliance, always on the way

 

 

Similar in nature to the UCIe alliance, the WiFi alliance, which has been established for more than 20 years, has been on its way. In 1999, six technology companies established the Wireless Ethernet compatibility Alliance. In 2000, the name was changed to Wi-Fi Alliance, and the term “Wi-Fi” was introduced, and the Wi-Fi CERTIFIED certification program was released. Over the years, Wi-Fi has significantly improved lives and the way individual institutions operate, which used to be a technological start. The Wi-Fi Alliance’s blueprint includes a number of key factors that will facilitate the widespread use of the organization’s technology in new market segments and applications. By maintaining ideological leadership, promoting the use of spectrum and industry cooperation, Wi-Fi Alliance has promoted the global adoption and development of Wi-Fi.

 

Summary

 

Among the various “alliances”, some are to suppress certain countries, while others lead the industry to develop and adopt agreed standards in the industry, promote efficient global cooperation among member companies, embrace technology and promote innovation. The industry is well aware of which plays an important role in the industry.

 

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Hitachi-led group wins $6.7bn driverless subway train contract in Canada

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Hitachi-led group wins $6.7bn driverless subway train contract in Canada
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A group led by Hitachi has won a contract worth 9 billion Canadian dollars ($6.7 billion) to supply and operate driverless subway trains for a new rail line in Canada.

The Japanese industrial group’s Connect 6ix consortium will deliver the trains for the planned Ontario Line in Toronto, Hitachi said Friday. The fleet will consist of 31 trains of four cars each.

The new rapid transit line, which will span 15.6 kilometers, will begin construction next year, with service expected to begin in 2030. The driverless trains will have top speeds of 80 kph.

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Hitachi will operate and maintain the trains and the rail system for 30 years under a contract with the public authority Infrastructure Ontario and Metrolinx, a public transport agency serving Greater Toronto.

The fully automated line will use wireless signal technology to control the speed and distance between trains. The trains are expected to run as frequently as every 90 seconds and will have the capacity to move up to 30,000 passengers per hour in each direction.

Hitachi’s rail business generated 628.3 billion yen ($4.48 billion) in revenue in the fiscal year that ended in March, with North and South America accounting for roughly 10% of the sales.

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As part of its expansion in North America, the Japanese company is building a $70 million subway car plant in the U.S. state of Maryland that is set to open in 2024.

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6 Tips for Estate Planning and What You Need to Know

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6 Tips for Estate Planning and What You Need to Know
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Everyone has an estate, and so do you. Your estate is made up of everything you own, including your house, car, investments, life insurance, and furniture. It also includes your checking and savings accounts and personal belongings. But the thing is you cannot take your estate with you when you pass away.

 

When that occurs, you’ll need to decide how you want to distribute them to the people that matter to you the most. You must give instructions outlining who is to receive what from you and when they are to receive it.

 

But most people don’t realize how important estate planning is until it’s too late. According to a study by Cambridge Trust, less than 46% of Americans have a will. Then they’re scrambling to take care of issues that may last for years, if not forever.

 

There are plenty of things you can do to ensure that your estate is in excellent hands. And estate planning isn’t hard if you work with the right people, like estate planning lawyers. Find out what you need to know about estate planning and hiring the right professionals. This article will highlight some tips to help you get started with estate planning.

What is Estate Planning and Why Should You Have One?

Estate planning is making sure your family will have what they need after you die.

 

You might think you don’t need an estate plan, but you should write one, anyway. If you don’t, things could get messy. Your family may fight over your stuff, or they might give some of your stuff to people that you don’t want it to go to. An estate plan is like a map that tells people where to send all your stuff after you die.

 

If you don’t have any assets, you might say you don’t need one.

 

It’s critical to realize that inheritances include more than just money. Most likely, you hold objects that mean a lot to you even if they don’t have a “market value.” A family heirloom, for instance, has no monetary value, but it can have a lot of emotional value.

 

Without an estate plan, the government decides for you. When you die, the government takes your money and gives it to schools and hospitals. Your estate plan allows you to decide who gets what and excludes people you don’t like.

Who Needs an Estate Plan?

You don’t have to be old and rich to make a will. In fact, you should make one no matter what your age or how much money you have.

 

But estate planning should be a priority for unmarried couples and blended families. Without a will, assets go to blood relatives, so unmarried partners can’t inherit. Family members from past marriages and current spouses may or may not want to split assets.

Tips for Starting Your Estate Planning

It’s never a good idea to leave your affairs without a plan. No matter how unlikely it seems, it’s important to have a legal document that specifies who handles your finances after you’re gone.

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Now that you have a clear idea of estate planning, you can begin with the following tips in mind:

  1. Seek Help from Estate Planning Lawyers

Source: Pexels

 

Many DIY estate planning websites, software, and trust kits say you can save money. But they are unlikely to produce a good plan that meets all your goals. Also, canned programs and forms do not provide the legal support necessary.

 

Putting it together is tricky without estate planning lawyers. Because only they know the rules on property rights, taxes, wills, probate, and trusts specific to your area.

 

If you live in California, there are a lot of estate planning lawyers in Fresno to get in touch with. You can talk to them about what you have, why you need a plan, and who should be in it.

 

Estate planning lawyers draft legally enforceable documents, so you don’t have to worry about it. It’s good to have someone help manage your assets, liabilities, and title arrangements.

 

An estate planning lawyer is important so that you can meet other goals. You may end up having to endure years of estate litigation if you do your own estate planning.

  1. Get Help from Family Law Lawyers for Guardianship of Your Dependents

How will you raise your kids if both parents die in an accident? Make sure you think about how your kids will get anything before you leave them. Unless you have a smart sibling, it’s best to put the money in a trust.

 

If you can’t resolve issues on your own, you need to seek the help of family law lawyers. The family law field covers everything from adoptions to probate. Custody, divorce, and probate overlap with the juvenile court for things like guardianships. So, family law lawyers can manage cases at any stage of the process.

 

To give you an idea, here are some lawyers you can get in touch with:

 

  • Divorce Lawyers
  • Child Custody Lawyers / Paternity Lawyers
  • Domestic Violence Victims Lawyers

 

But, before naming a guardian, make sure you consult with them ahead of time to get their consent. Also, keep in mind that they do not have to be the ones in charge of your child’s inheritance. A trustee can take care of your child’s inheritance until they’re old enough to do it themselves. Finally, make sure it is someone you can trust your children’s future once you’ve passed from an accident.

  1. Consider Disability and Death in Your Documents

Source: Pexels

Estate plans outline what you’d like to do with your assets and dependents. In case of incapacity or death, you need to prepare a few things. Without an estate plan, a judge in probate court can make such decisions for you. Protect your assets from probate by preparing estate planning documents.

 

Your assets and family status determine what you need in an estate plan. If you’re a business owner, you must have succession plans. Likewise, parents of special-needs kids should have special-needs trust. There are options for all income levels, no matter how you want your assets divided.

  1. Minimize Assets Lost to Taxes

Taxes play a big part in estate planning. The goal is to leave as much as possible to your heirs. This may be an issue if a large part of your estate is not in cash. This could imply selling assets such as a home or stocks you wish to leave to an heir.

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That’s why understanding these taxes is so important.

 

  • Estate Tax
  • Inheritance Tax
  • Gift Tax

 

Get professional help if you have a large estate with many assets. Estate planning lawyers will help you draft a will that’s sure to distribute your assets the way you want.

 

In this scenario, finance lawyers can also help. Even ahead of time, you can help your beneficiaries avoid or limit inheritance taxes. They can work with tax professionals to find a way to reduce your estate tax bill.

  1. Merge Documents in a Secure Portal

When planning your estate, make sure your valuables are secure and accessible. This can include storing sensitive documents on secure file-sharing platforms. In case of incapacity or death, you can store your passwords in your internet accounts. Estate planning lawyers can help you organize and account for the relevant documents.

  1. Update As Needed with the Help of Modification Lawyers

Source: Pexels

 

You should change your estate plan every time your life changes. Re-evaluate it every three to five years. One reason is that you might have big events happening during that time. Getting married, having kids, and getting older are all good reasons to update it.

 

If you want to change a trust, a lawyer can look at it and change it so it will do just that. Of course, you can make modifications on your own. But, if you are hesitant about doing so, it is best to seek the help of modification lawyers.

To Wrap it Up

The best way to understand the process is to know what questions to ask and whom to ask them. This is why seeking estate planning lawyers is beneficial. You can ask them all the questions, get straight answers in layman’s terms, and make the best choice.

 

All in all, you probably have much more to gain from estate planning than you have to lose. What’s more, if you get a professionally drafted document, you can also draft your own letter with it. If you’re sick, this is a good way to let your family, friends, and loved ones know how you feel about them.

 

An estate plan isn’t just for the wealthy. It’s a planning process that needs to happen. There are ways to get legal help in this area; the internet can be a great place to start finding information. All you have to do is get started on making an estate plan before something happens that prompts you to do so.

 

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GATE 2023 Mechanical Engineering Exam Pattern, Marking Scheme, Important Topics, Types of Questions and More

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GATE 2023 Mechanical Engineering Exam Pattern, Marking Scheme, Important Topics, Types of Questions and More
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The official website will publish the GATE 2023 Mechanical Engineering (ME) Exam Pattern. This year, no new alterations have been made to the ME paper pattern. The question paper for the GATE Exam Pattern for Mechanical Engineering (ME) is organised into three sections: General Aptitude, Engineering Mathematics, and Core Discipline. The General Aptitude portion accounts for 15% of the total weightage, whereas Engineering Mathematics and Core Discipline account for 13% and 72%, respectively.

 

The most crucial step before starting your preparation for GATE (ME) is going through the exam pattern, syllabus, marking scheme and other important details regarding the exam.

 

On that note, let’s learn about the GATE ME exam pattern, marking scheme, important topics and types of questions asked in the exam in detail.

 

Exam Features Details
Examination Mode Computer Based Test (CBT)
Language English
Duration 3 Hours (180 Minutes)
Total Marks 100
Total Number of questions 65
Type of Questions Multiple Choice Questions (MCQ);

Multiple Select Questions (MSQ);

Numerical Answer Type (NAT) Questions

Number of Sections 3 (General Aptitude, Engineering Mathematics and Core Discipline)
Number of Questions in Each Section General Aptitude- 10 questions,

Engineering Mathematics & Core Discipline- 55 questions

 

GATE 2023 Mechanical Engineering (ME) Marking Scheme

The GATE 2023 Mechanical Engineering (ME) exam pattern is a 100-mark paper with 1 and 2 mark questions.

 

NATs and MSQs have no negative markings. However, for each wrong MCQ in the paper, marks will be deducted.

 

  • 1/3 mark will be deducted for each incorrect 1 mark MCQ,
  • 2/3 mark will be deducted for each incorrect 2 mark MCQ.

GATE 2023 Mechanical Engineering (ME)- Important Topics

Mechanical Engineering (ME) GATE Syllabus 2023 includes topics from General Aptitude, Engineering Mathematics, and Core Discipline. Each part also has subjects with important topics and sub-topics, which are listed below.

 

Subjects Important Topics
Thermodynamics Laws of Thermodynamics, Pure Substance Properties and Thermodynamics Relation
Production Engineering Metal Cutting, Machine tools, Computer integrated Manufacturing,

Metrology & Inspection, Casting, Welding, Forming

Engineering Mathematics Linear Algebra, Complex Number, Differential Equation, Limit & Continuity, Laplace, Probability and so on.
Theory of Machines Simple Mechanics & their inversion, Balancing, Gyroscope, Vibration
General Aptitude Numerical Reasoning & Verbal Reasoning
Industrial Engineering Inventory, Sequencing, Queuing Theory, PERT & CPM
Machine Design Fatigue Loading, springs, Brakes, Welded Joints
Fluid Mechanics Flow-Through Jets, Fluid Machinery, Fluid Properties, Pressure & Manometry
Engineering Mechanics Lagrange Equation
Strength of Materials Stresses & strains, Beam Deflection and Bending
Heat-Transfer Unsteady State of Conduction, Fins, Conduction, Radiation

 

TYPES OF QUESTIONS

The GATE 2023 Mechanical Engineering exam’s first two sections are made up of multiple choice and numerical answer questions. The multiple-choice questions have four options, only one of which is correct. Candidates must submit a numerical value as the answer in numerical type questions sections. The following are the various types of questions that applicants are expected to answer:

 

  • Recall – These questions are typically based on well-known facts, concepts, proven facts, equations, or rules from the mechanical engineering profession. Candidates are asked to solve the questions either by recalling answers from memory or by performing a one-line calculation.
  • Comprehension – These questions assess the candidate’s knowledge and comprehension of mechanical engineering topics. In this section, candidates are expected to draw simple inferences based on fundamental concepts.
  • Application – This section contains problems in which candidates must apply their knowledge either logically or computationally.
  • Analysis and Synthesis – This section contains questions in a linked structure, which implies that the first question of the pair must be answered before the second or subsequent question. Candidates should also expect some common data questions, in which two questions share the same data but are unrelated to one another.
  • Common Data Questions – This section’s questions are made up of several questions that are all related to a common data problem or passage. Based on the given data, many questions, say two or three, can be constructed. Each question in this section is worth two points, is self-contained, and can be solved independently.
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