Investigating the phenomenon of NSFW posts in Reddit
Connect with us

Work

Investigating the phenomenon of NSFW posts in Reddit

Ody Team

Published

on

Investigating the phenomenon of NSFW posts in Reddit
Want create site? Find Free WordPress Themes and plugins.

Abstract

In this paper, we study the characteristics of NSFW (Not Safe For Work) posts in Reddit, highlighting their differences from SFW (Safe For Work) posts, which have been much more studied in the past literature. In our investigation, we studied all Reddit posts from 2019. Through both descriptive analytics techniques and social network analysis techniques, we extract three findings on the main differences between NSFW and SFW posts in Reddit. Thanks to these findings, we are able to better understand the dynamics (authors, subreddits, readers) behind NSFW posts. In particular, it becomes clear that this is a niche world where authors are strongly cohesive. However, at the same time, the most popular ones show a clear opening to new authors, whom they are willing to collaborate with, from the beginning.

Introduction

Reddit1 is currently one of the most active social media. It has been extensively studied by researchers in the past [19]. In [25], the authors present an interesting longitudinal analysis of the evolution of this social medium. Furthermore, many papers have focused on specific aspects of this social network, concerning, for example, community structures and interactions [27], [8], [10], user behavior [3], [14], [16], structure and content of subreddits, posts and comments [24], structural properties [10], [13], [33], text classification [15], user migration [21], political and ideological aspects [12], [31].

One aspect of Reddit worth to be analyzed involves NSFW (Not Safe For Work) posts. This term refers to user-submitted content not suitable to be viewed in public or in professional contexts. The phenomenon of NSFW posts in Reddit has been very little investigated, although it is very common in this social medium. In fact, only a very small number of authors have analyzed it [17], [20]. The term “NSFW” has been proposed since 1998, and is one of the oldest acronyms of the Internet. Since its first appearance, many social media, such as Twitter, WhatsApp and Reddit, have adopted it to indicate certain sections or contents. In addition, several authors have focused on the analysis of this phenomenon in other social networks. The study about the role of images and selfies in NSFW content of tumblr.com, presented in [28], and the analysis of the anonymity level of NSFW content in both Twitter and Whisper, described in [7] are two examples.

In this paper, we give a contribution in this setting investigating the phenomenon of NSFW posts in Reddit and describing the whole context (authors, subreddits and readers) behind it. For this purpose, we consider a dataset that includes all the posts published in Reddit from January 1st, 2019 to December 31st, 2019.

During our investigation, we carried out three types of analysis, namely:

Descriptive Analysis, to study the distributions of the entities involved in the phenomenon (e.g., the distribution of NSFW posts against subreddits, authors, score and comments).

Social Network Analysis, to study the co-posting phenomenon, and therefore the interactions between authors of NSFW posts.

Assortativity Analysis, to extend and deepen the previous analyses to discover and study whether possible forms of assortativity [22] exist among the authors of NSFW posts. Recall that assortativity is a particular case of homophily in social networks [18], which indicates the tendency of a node to cooperate with nodes having similar characteristics.

These analyses allowed us to extract three findings regarding NSFW posts, NSFW authors and NSFW subreddits, respectively. Throughout our analysis, in most of the cases, we compare each finding on NSFW posts with the corresponding one on SFW (Safe For Work) posts. Some of the questions these findings provide an answer to are the following:

What can be said about the spread of NSFW posts in the subreddits?

What can be said about the quantity of posts an NSFW author usually submits?

What can be said about the score of NSFW posts?

What can be said about the number and the score of comments to NSFW posts?

What can be said about the level of interconnection between authors of NSFW posts?

Is there a backbone among experienced authors of NSFW posts? In other words, do they tend to interact only with their peers (i.e., authors with the same level of experience), or are they open to collaborations with new authors who have just started publishing NSFW posts?

ALSO READ  Explore the best places in Surrey for an ultimate vacation!

Finally, we suitably combine the knowledge represented by the three findings in order to describe the dynamics behind the phenomenon of NSFW posts in Reddit.

The rest of this paper is organized as follows: In Section 2, we present related literature. In Section 3, we describe the dataset used in our analysis. In Section 4, we provide an overview of our investigation activity. In Section 5, we study various distributions involving NSFW posts. In Section 6, we study several distributions regarding comments of NSFW posts. In Section 7, we investigate the co-posting activity of the authors of NSFW posts. In Section 8, we evaluate the assortativity of the authors of NSFW posts. In Section 9, we combine the three findings derived during our investigations in order to define an overall picture of this phenomenon. Finally, in Section 10, we draw our conclusions and think of some possible developments of our research efforts.

Section snippets

Related literature

The term “NSFW” was first proposed in 1998 and it is one of the oldest acronyms of the Internet. It refers to content that is not suitable to be viewed in a working environment. Since then, different online systems, like Twitter, WhatsApp, many forums, and Reddit, have adopted this term to label sections with posted content not adequate for everybody and, in general, not suitable for public and professional contexts. Specifically, Reddit has introduced a dedicated group of contents called NSFW

Dataset description

The dataset used for our analysis has been downloaded from the website pushshift.io [1], one of the main Reddit data sources. In particular, we extracted all the posts published on Reddit from January 1st, 2019 to September 1st, 20192. The number of posts available for our analysis was 150,795,895. In Reddit, an NSFW post must be marked as such by its author.

Overview of our investigation activity

Our investigation of the phenomenon of NSFW posts in Reddit follows the workflow shown in Fig. 1.

Due to layout reasons, this figure shows the dataset in input only to the first module. Actually, the dataset is provided in input to each module of the workflow. Similarly, the descriptive (resp., co-posting) knowledge, which are shown as an input for the co-posting (resp., assortativity) analysis module, are also an output of the investigation activity.

As we can see in Fig. 1, the first phase of

Investigating distributions involving NSFW posts

In this section, we present some analyses directly involving NSFW and SFW posts. In particular, we study the distribution of subreddits and authors against posts and the distribution of posts against the scores assigned to them by Reddit users.

ALSO READ  Pink diamond found in Angola believed to be largest in 300 years

Investigating distributions on comments to NSFW posts

In this section, we analyze the comments to NSFW posts investigating their authors, the scores they get and the subreddits they are submitted to.

Investigating co-posting activity of the authors of NSFW posts

The goal of this analysis is to verify whether there is any correlation between the authors of NSFW posts. As usual, we will extract the information of interest and we will compare the behavior of authors of NSFW posts with the ones of SFW posts. In this activity, we will use a support data structure that we call co-posting network. Having observed in all the previous experiments that the results obtained for the Jan-Feb datasets (i.e., D and D‾) are stable, from now on we will refer to these

Evaluating assortativity of the authors of NSFW posts

The concept of “assortativity”, or “assortative mixing”, in a social network points out the predilection of its nodes to be connected with other nodes that are somehow similar to them. This concept, introduced by Newman [22], can be seen as an evolution of the concept of homophily [18], typical of Social Network Analysis. Assortativity is orthogonal to node similarity metrics considered, even if most of the authors in the literature have studied it with respect to node degree. According to this

Discussion

Combining together all the previous results, we can define three main findings related to posts, authors and subreddits, respectively. Some of these findings are made up of several sub-findings.

The three findings are the following:

PF (Finding on NSFW posts).

1.

NSFW posts are generally published in much fewer subreddits, have much lower scores and are much less commented than SFW posts.

2.

The scores of comments to NSFW posts are much lower than the ones to SFW posts.

AF (Finding on NSFW authors).

1.

NSFW

Conclusion

In this paper, we have presented an approach to investigate NSFW posts in Reddit. We have seen that this type of content is frequent in this social medium and, despite this, there are very few studies on this subject in the past literature. We have tried to fill this gap and we have proposed an approach that investigates the phenomenon of NSFW posts in Reddit with descriptive, co-posting and assortativity analyses.

In this way, we have obtained three findings, which, together with the principles

Declaration of Competing Interest

The authors declare that they have no known competing financial interests or personal relationships that could have appeared to influence the work reported in this paper.

Acknowledgments

This work was partially supported by: (i) the Italian Ministry for Economic Development (MISE) under the project “Smarter Solutions in the Big Data World”, funded within the call “HORIZON2020” PON I&C 2014–2020 (CUP B28I17000250008), and (ii) the Department of Information Engineering at the Polytechnic University of Marche under the project “A network-based approach to uniformly extract knowledge and support decision making in heterogeneous application contexts” (RSAB 2018).

Did you find apk for android? You can find new Free Android Games and apps.
Continue Reading

Work

Hitachi-led group wins $6.7bn driverless subway train contract in Canada

Odyssey News

Published

on

Hitachi-led group wins $6.7bn driverless subway train contract in Canada
Want create site? Find Free WordPress Themes and plugins.

A group led by Hitachi has won a contract worth 9 billion Canadian dollars ($6.7 billion) to supply and operate driverless subway trains for a new rail line in Canada.

The Japanese industrial group’s Connect 6ix consortium will deliver the trains for the planned Ontario Line in Toronto, Hitachi said Friday. The fleet will consist of 31 trains of four cars each.

The new rapid transit line, which will span 15.6 kilometers, will begin construction next year, with service expected to begin in 2030. The driverless trains will have top speeds of 80 kph.

ALSO READ  What You Should Know About a Kuripe

Hitachi will operate and maintain the trains and the rail system for 30 years under a contract with the public authority Infrastructure Ontario and Metrolinx, a public transport agency serving Greater Toronto.

The fully automated line will use wireless signal technology to control the speed and distance between trains. The trains are expected to run as frequently as every 90 seconds and will have the capacity to move up to 30,000 passengers per hour in each direction.

Hitachi’s rail business generated 628.3 billion yen ($4.48 billion) in revenue in the fiscal year that ended in March, with North and South America accounting for roughly 10% of the sales.

ALSO READ  Explore the best places in Surrey for an ultimate vacation!

As part of its expansion in North America, the Japanese company is building a $70 million subway car plant in the U.S. state of Maryland that is set to open in 2024.

Did you find apk for android? You can find new Free Android Games and apps.
Continue Reading

Work

6 Tips for Estate Planning and What You Need to Know

Odyssey News

Published

on

6 Tips for Estate Planning and What You Need to Know
Want create site? Find Free WordPress Themes and plugins.

Everyone has an estate, and so do you. Your estate is made up of everything you own, including your house, car, investments, life insurance, and furniture. It also includes your checking and savings accounts and personal belongings. But the thing is you cannot take your estate with you when you pass away.

 

When that occurs, you’ll need to decide how you want to distribute them to the people that matter to you the most. You must give instructions outlining who is to receive what from you and when they are to receive it.

 

But most people don’t realize how important estate planning is until it’s too late. According to a study by Cambridge Trust, less than 46% of Americans have a will. Then they’re scrambling to take care of issues that may last for years, if not forever.

 

There are plenty of things you can do to ensure that your estate is in excellent hands. And estate planning isn’t hard if you work with the right people, like estate planning lawyers. Find out what you need to know about estate planning and hiring the right professionals. This article will highlight some tips to help you get started with estate planning.

What is Estate Planning and Why Should You Have One?

Estate planning is making sure your family will have what they need after you die.

 

You might think you don’t need an estate plan, but you should write one, anyway. If you don’t, things could get messy. Your family may fight over your stuff, or they might give some of your stuff to people that you don’t want it to go to. An estate plan is like a map that tells people where to send all your stuff after you die.

 

If you don’t have any assets, you might say you don’t need one.

 

It’s critical to realize that inheritances include more than just money. Most likely, you hold objects that mean a lot to you even if they don’t have a “market value.” A family heirloom, for instance, has no monetary value, but it can have a lot of emotional value.

 

Without an estate plan, the government decides for you. When you die, the government takes your money and gives it to schools and hospitals. Your estate plan allows you to decide who gets what and excludes people you don’t like.

Who Needs an Estate Plan?

You don’t have to be old and rich to make a will. In fact, you should make one no matter what your age or how much money you have.

 

But estate planning should be a priority for unmarried couples and blended families. Without a will, assets go to blood relatives, so unmarried partners can’t inherit. Family members from past marriages and current spouses may or may not want to split assets.

Tips for Starting Your Estate Planning

It’s never a good idea to leave your affairs without a plan. No matter how unlikely it seems, it’s important to have a legal document that specifies who handles your finances after you’re gone.

ALSO READ  Avoid These Common 401(k) Investing Mistakes, as Outlined by Financial Advisor D. Paterson Cope

 

Now that you have a clear idea of estate planning, you can begin with the following tips in mind:

  1. Seek Help from Estate Planning Lawyers

Source: Pexels

 

Many DIY estate planning websites, software, and trust kits say you can save money. But they are unlikely to produce a good plan that meets all your goals. Also, canned programs and forms do not provide the legal support necessary.

 

Putting it together is tricky without estate planning lawyers. Because only they know the rules on property rights, taxes, wills, probate, and trusts specific to your area.

 

If you live in California, there are a lot of estate planning lawyers in Fresno to get in touch with. You can talk to them about what you have, why you need a plan, and who should be in it.

 

Estate planning lawyers draft legally enforceable documents, so you don’t have to worry about it. It’s good to have someone help manage your assets, liabilities, and title arrangements.

 

An estate planning lawyer is important so that you can meet other goals. You may end up having to endure years of estate litigation if you do your own estate planning.

  1. Get Help from Family Law Lawyers for Guardianship of Your Dependents

How will you raise your kids if both parents die in an accident? Make sure you think about how your kids will get anything before you leave them. Unless you have a smart sibling, it’s best to put the money in a trust.

 

If you can’t resolve issues on your own, you need to seek the help of family law lawyers. The family law field covers everything from adoptions to probate. Custody, divorce, and probate overlap with the juvenile court for things like guardianships. So, family law lawyers can manage cases at any stage of the process.

 

To give you an idea, here are some lawyers you can get in touch with:

 

  • Divorce Lawyers
  • Child Custody Lawyers / Paternity Lawyers
  • Domestic Violence Victims Lawyers

 

But, before naming a guardian, make sure you consult with them ahead of time to get their consent. Also, keep in mind that they do not have to be the ones in charge of your child’s inheritance. A trustee can take care of your child’s inheritance until they’re old enough to do it themselves. Finally, make sure it is someone you can trust your children’s future once you’ve passed from an accident.

  1. Consider Disability and Death in Your Documents

Source: Pexels

Estate plans outline what you’d like to do with your assets and dependents. In case of incapacity or death, you need to prepare a few things. Without an estate plan, a judge in probate court can make such decisions for you. Protect your assets from probate by preparing estate planning documents.

 

Your assets and family status determine what you need in an estate plan. If you’re a business owner, you must have succession plans. Likewise, parents of special-needs kids should have special-needs trust. There are options for all income levels, no matter how you want your assets divided.

  1. Minimize Assets Lost to Taxes

Taxes play a big part in estate planning. The goal is to leave as much as possible to your heirs. This may be an issue if a large part of your estate is not in cash. This could imply selling assets such as a home or stocks you wish to leave to an heir.

ALSO READ  What You Should Know About a Kuripe

 

That’s why understanding these taxes is so important.

 

  • Estate Tax
  • Inheritance Tax
  • Gift Tax

 

Get professional help if you have a large estate with many assets. Estate planning lawyers will help you draft a will that’s sure to distribute your assets the way you want.

 

In this scenario, finance lawyers can also help. Even ahead of time, you can help your beneficiaries avoid or limit inheritance taxes. They can work with tax professionals to find a way to reduce your estate tax bill.

  1. Merge Documents in a Secure Portal

When planning your estate, make sure your valuables are secure and accessible. This can include storing sensitive documents on secure file-sharing platforms. In case of incapacity or death, you can store your passwords in your internet accounts. Estate planning lawyers can help you organize and account for the relevant documents.

  1. Update As Needed with the Help of Modification Lawyers

Source: Pexels

 

You should change your estate plan every time your life changes. Re-evaluate it every three to five years. One reason is that you might have big events happening during that time. Getting married, having kids, and getting older are all good reasons to update it.

 

If you want to change a trust, a lawyer can look at it and change it so it will do just that. Of course, you can make modifications on your own. But, if you are hesitant about doing so, it is best to seek the help of modification lawyers.

To Wrap it Up

The best way to understand the process is to know what questions to ask and whom to ask them. This is why seeking estate planning lawyers is beneficial. You can ask them all the questions, get straight answers in layman’s terms, and make the best choice.

 

All in all, you probably have much more to gain from estate planning than you have to lose. What’s more, if you get a professionally drafted document, you can also draft your own letter with it. If you’re sick, this is a good way to let your family, friends, and loved ones know how you feel about them.

 

An estate plan isn’t just for the wealthy. It’s a planning process that needs to happen. There are ways to get legal help in this area; the internet can be a great place to start finding information. All you have to do is get started on making an estate plan before something happens that prompts you to do so.

 

Did you find apk for android? You can find new Free Android Games and apps.
Continue Reading

Work

GATE 2023 Mechanical Engineering Exam Pattern, Marking Scheme, Important Topics, Types of Questions and More

Odyssey News

Published

on

GATE 2023 Mechanical Engineering Exam Pattern, Marking Scheme, Important Topics, Types of Questions and More
Want create site? Find Free WordPress Themes and plugins.

The official website will publish the GATE 2023 Mechanical Engineering (ME) Exam Pattern. This year, no new alterations have been made to the ME paper pattern. The question paper for the GATE Exam Pattern for Mechanical Engineering (ME) is organised into three sections: General Aptitude, Engineering Mathematics, and Core Discipline. The General Aptitude portion accounts for 15% of the total weightage, whereas Engineering Mathematics and Core Discipline account for 13% and 72%, respectively.

 

The most crucial step before starting your preparation for GATE (ME) is going through the exam pattern, syllabus, marking scheme and other important details regarding the exam.

 

On that note, let’s learn about the GATE ME exam pattern, marking scheme, important topics and types of questions asked in the exam in detail.

 

Exam Features Details
Examination Mode Computer Based Test (CBT)
Language English
Duration 3 Hours (180 Minutes)
Total Marks 100
Total Number of questions 65
Type of Questions Multiple Choice Questions (MCQ);

Multiple Select Questions (MSQ);

Numerical Answer Type (NAT) Questions

Number of Sections 3 (General Aptitude, Engineering Mathematics and Core Discipline)
Number of Questions in Each Section General Aptitude- 10 questions,

Engineering Mathematics & Core Discipline- 55 questions

 

GATE 2023 Mechanical Engineering (ME) Marking Scheme

The GATE 2023 Mechanical Engineering (ME) exam pattern is a 100-mark paper with 1 and 2 mark questions.

 

NATs and MSQs have no negative markings. However, for each wrong MCQ in the paper, marks will be deducted.

 

  • 1/3 mark will be deducted for each incorrect 1 mark MCQ,
  • 2/3 mark will be deducted for each incorrect 2 mark MCQ.

GATE 2023 Mechanical Engineering (ME)- Important Topics

Mechanical Engineering (ME) GATE Syllabus 2023 includes topics from General Aptitude, Engineering Mathematics, and Core Discipline. Each part also has subjects with important topics and sub-topics, which are listed below.

 

Subjects Important Topics
Thermodynamics Laws of Thermodynamics, Pure Substance Properties and Thermodynamics Relation
Production Engineering Metal Cutting, Machine tools, Computer integrated Manufacturing,

Metrology & Inspection, Casting, Welding, Forming

Engineering Mathematics Linear Algebra, Complex Number, Differential Equation, Limit & Continuity, Laplace, Probability and so on.
Theory of Machines Simple Mechanics & their inversion, Balancing, Gyroscope, Vibration
General Aptitude Numerical Reasoning & Verbal Reasoning
Industrial Engineering Inventory, Sequencing, Queuing Theory, PERT & CPM
Machine Design Fatigue Loading, springs, Brakes, Welded Joints
Fluid Mechanics Flow-Through Jets, Fluid Machinery, Fluid Properties, Pressure & Manometry
Engineering Mechanics Lagrange Equation
Strength of Materials Stresses & strains, Beam Deflection and Bending
Heat-Transfer Unsteady State of Conduction, Fins, Conduction, Radiation

 

TYPES OF QUESTIONS

The GATE 2023 Mechanical Engineering exam’s first two sections are made up of multiple choice and numerical answer questions. The multiple-choice questions have four options, only one of which is correct. Candidates must submit a numerical value as the answer in numerical type questions sections. The following are the various types of questions that applicants are expected to answer:

 

  • Recall – These questions are typically based on well-known facts, concepts, proven facts, equations, or rules from the mechanical engineering profession. Candidates are asked to solve the questions either by recalling answers from memory or by performing a one-line calculation.
  • Comprehension – These questions assess the candidate’s knowledge and comprehension of mechanical engineering topics. In this section, candidates are expected to draw simple inferences based on fundamental concepts.
  • Application – This section contains problems in which candidates must apply their knowledge either logically or computationally.
  • Analysis and Synthesis – This section contains questions in a linked structure, which implies that the first question of the pair must be answered before the second or subsequent question. Candidates should also expect some common data questions, in which two questions share the same data but are unrelated to one another.
  • Common Data Questions – This section’s questions are made up of several questions that are all related to a common data problem or passage. Based on the given data, many questions, say two or three, can be constructed. Each question in this section is worth two points, is self-contained, and can be solved independently.
Did you find apk for android? You can find new Free Android Games and apps.
ALSO READ  Pink diamond found in Angola believed to be largest in 300 years
Continue Reading

Trending